chapter  7
- Various Pictures and Density Matrix
Pages 18

In classical mechanics the state of a system is defined by the numerical values of a set of dynamical variables such as the position coordinates and the velocities. In quantum mechanics the state of a system at an instant is represented by a unit vector in a Hilbert space, where a set of axes are the eigenvectors of a complete set of observables. Here the observable are not the state vectors but the expectation values of a set of self-adjoint or Hermitian operators corresponding to the dynamical variables. The variation of 〈A〉 with time is seen as arising in any one of the following ways:

1. The state vector changes with time, but the operator A remains unchanged.