Image Processing Basics
Image processing refers to the manipulation and analysis of pictorial information, for example by improving, correcting, changing or analyzing the image. An analog image can be sampled to give an array of discrete points, each of which has an associated brightness value. This is a digital image, which is simply an array of numbers, one for each sample point. The resolution of an image is a measure of the fidelity of the representation of the original scene. The grayscale image histogram is a way of illustrating the distribution of gray levels in an image. The spatial properties of an image can be altered in a range of ways, the simplest of which are geometric operations to rescale or rotate the image. The contrast properties of an image may be changed by changing the pixel values in a way that has a particular effect on the histogram. The chapter also presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in this book.