The primary purpose of affective tests is to assess the personal response (preference or
acceptance) of current or potential customers to a product, a product idea, or speciﬁc
Affective tests are used mainly by producers of consumer goods, but also by service
providers such as hospitals, banks, and the Armed Forces, where many tests were ﬁrst
developed (Chapter 1, p. 1). Every year, the use of consumer tests becomes more common.
They have proven highly effective as a tool used to design products and services that will
sell in larger quantities or command a higher price. Prosperous companies tend to
excel in consumer-testing knowledge and, consequently, in knowledge about