This ﬁrst section of the book is primarily concerned with (2). We include consideration of the fundamental elements of which all matter is composed and the forces which hold it together. The concept of ‘atomistics’ is not new. The ancient Greeks – and especially Democritus (c.460 BC) – had the idea of a single elementary particle but their science did not extend to observation and experiment. For that we had to wait nearly 22 centuries until Dalton, Avogadro and Cannizzaro formulated atomic theory as we know it today. Even so, very many mysteries remain unresolved, a fact which is as pleasing as it is provoking. So in treating the subject in this way we are reaching a long way back into the development of thought about the universe and the way in which it is put together.