chapter  4
10 Pages


The contents of information can concern (1) tangible objects, (2) process objects, and/or (3) cognitive or conceptual objects. Process objects can be sub-divided according to intention: (a) for useful application, manufacturing, distributing, operating or disposing of a tangible or process object, or (b) for designing a tangible or process object [152]. Cognitive objects include thoughts, ideas, intuitions, feelings, associations, apperceptions (see section 2.5), etc. about tangible or process objects. Various processes or relationships link these constituents. Subjects for information include everyday life, biology, sociology, physics, mathematics, agriculture, history, arts, geography, etc., and designing and design engineering. The constituents of information include data, observations, evidence, rules, theories, knowledge, experience, etc. Information with respect to its credibility ranges over fact, observation, guideline, belief, myth, prejudice, hearsay, to deliberate mis-information. Typical forms of information include data, observations, experiences, explanations, heuristics, generalizations, rules, hypotheses, knowledge, and theories, and their verification or proof. Information may be more or less structured, from an informal collection to a formalized and verified system.