chapter  12
- Foundations
Pages 30

Immersed tunnels are frequently located in poor ground conditions. River beds, estuaries, and marine environments naturally feature sands, silts, alluvium, and muds, often at depth, where ancient watercourses have existed or deposition has taken place over millions of years. It is natural to expect that such conditions may require a significant foundation solution, but this is not the case with an immersed tunnel; in fact, they are an ideal form of construction for this environment as the loading to the soil is relatively light and often the foundation solution can be quite simple. This chapter explores the different foundation solutions that can be used and features that are particular to the immersed tube method.