Recent major structural re events and their implications
Humankind has learnt from re events to develop practices that mitigate the dangers of re. The great res of London (2-5 September 1666), Moscow (14-18 September 1812), Chicago (8-10 October 1871), and others have laid the foundations of regulations on re safety. Within the narrower context of structural performance in re, a few recent res have been in€uential and may be claimed to have in€uenced strongly the development of best practice in modern structural re engineering. This chapter describes these res and explains their impacts and in€uences on the development of modern structural re engineering practice. These res are the Broadgate re in London in 1990 (Steel Construction Industry Forum [SCIF] 1991); the Cardington structural re research programme in the mid-1990s (Newman et al. 2006); the World Trade Center res on September 11, 2001 (Federal Emergency Management Agency [FEMA] 2002; National Institute of Standards and Technology [NIST] 2005, 2008); and the Windsor Tower re in Madrid in 2005 (Intemac 2005).