chapter  1
10 Pages

Exhaled Breath Condensate: A New Approach to Monitoring Lung Inflammation

I. Introduction ......................................................................................................1 A. Noninvasive Markers ..............................................................................2 B. Volatile Gases .........................................................................................2

II. Exhaled Breath Condensate .............................................................................2 A. Origin......................................................................................................3 B. Factors Affecting Measurements............................................................4 C. Markers of Oxidative Stress...................................................................4 D. Markers of Nitrative Stress ....................................................................5 E. Inflammatory Mediators .........................................................................5

III. Future Developments .......................................................................................6 A. Use in Clinical Practice..........................................................................6 B. Guidelines ...............................................................................................6 C. Increased Sensitivity of Assays..............................................................6 D. On-Line Measurements ..........................................................................6 E. Proteomics ..............................................................................................7

IV. Conclusions ......................................................................................................7 Further Reading .........................................................................................................7

Inflammation plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of many pulmonary diseases, but traditionally it has been difficult to measure this in airway and peripheral lung disease because invasive methods, such as bronchial biopsy, lung biopsy, or bronchoalveolar lavage, have been necessary. This has been a particular problem in patients with severe disease and with children. The invasiveness of these measure-