chapter  1
10 Pages

Upstream and downstream steps

The striking development of highly efficient and sophisticated microanalytical and preparative chromatography has led to tremendous progress in the study of proteins and peptides. Nevertheless, optimisation of upstream and downstream operations, in chromatography steps, such as finding the right conditions of extraction, sample preparation and suitable methods for monitoring the protein and biological activities remain crucial. Several manuals are available which cover the detailed operations of protein separation and purification covering relevant details of the extraction methods (Scopes, 1987; Ladish et al., 1990; Janson and Ryden, 1989; Methods in Enzymology, 22, 34 and 204).