Miscellaneous methods in affinity
The interaction between borate and cis-diols was first noticed in 1874 when Vignon and Bouchardat attempted to titrate boric acid. They found that it was impossible to titrate boric acid unless glycerol was added. Subsequent studies indicated that the titration depended on a covalent interaction between borate and cis-diols. By the 1940s, this property had been employed as a tool in the analysis of carbohydrates (Boeseken, 1949). In the 1950s , the borate/cis-diol interaction was used for zone electrophoresis in borate buffers (Foster, 1957). In the 1960s, the borate/cis-diol interaction was used for ion exchange chromatography in borate buffers (Mattok and Wilson, 1965). However, the breakthrough came in 1970s when researchers developed immobilized boronate chromatography systems.