MICRO- AND NANOPATTERNING USING THE SCANNING ELECTROCHEMICAL MICROSCOPE
Early in the development of the scanning electrochemical microscope (SECM) it was recognized that when an ultramicroelectrode (UME) is brought near a conducting surface, electron transfer is confined to a small area on the surface. This realization led to the development of a number of methods for using the SECM as a tool for surface modification (1). The term "microelectrochemistry" was coined to denote the production of micropatterns by means of electrochemical techniques. The surface reactions that have been explored in this context range from metal deposition and etching to the patterning of surfaces by enzymes, and they have not all been electron-transfer processes. Moreover, work has been done to increase the resolution of the fabricated patterns, extending the capability of the SECM into the nanometer domain.