Ground effect practically does not exist when a
plane flies more than one wingspan above the surface and increase with speed of aircraft named WIG (Wing in Ground effect craft (WIG)) or ekranoplane. Ground effect technology is recognized well from the late sixties mainly in Germany (Hanno Fischer + Dr Lippisch developed the X-113) and Soviet Union (Rostislav Alexeiev and his all known Central Hydrofoil Design Bureau) with all known Caspian Monster or next generation WIG named the Lun for high-speed attacks. Idea of this type of
ABSTRACT: Ground effect technology is recognized from the late sixties. Problem with wide expanding of this technology named WIG (Wing in Ground effect craft (WIG)) or ekranoplane was connected with stability and control systems, aerodynamics of landing and take off also sea state. Different civil and military configurations were tested, but the first Ground Effect Craft named Airfish 8 produced by Airfoil Development Gmbh (AFD) was certified in late 90-ies by Germanischer Llyod ( +100 A0 WIG – A , WH 0,5/1,5 EXP) . Currently, it is now owned and developed by Wigetworks of Singapore and testing of Hoverwing 20 is expected. Last developments in the aviation field indicates new role in maritime transport of WIGs The second generation of ground effect craft sizes up to 200 seats in the future is planned. Authors recommend to discuss proposition of new generation of WIGs on Baltic sea transport similar to effect introduced in European General Aviation by project of EPATS and SAT Rdmp.