Hannah Arendt and the study and practice of ELMA
ELMA is concerned with the study and practice of teaching and learning, with special regard to the role of professionals, organisational structures and cultures. Consequently there are studies of schools (e.g. Richardson 1973), higher education (e.g. Fitzgerald et al. 2012) and local authorities (e.g. Bush and Kogan 1982); there are studies of particular roles (e.g. Lortie 2009), and of roles within organisations (e.g. Southworth 1995). Studies that examine the context in which schools and professionals are located tend to be concerned with policy and governance (e.g. Grace 1995, Saltman and Gabbard 2011), and while school-based ELMA features in such studies, the emphasis tends to be on the relationship between
agency and structure within professional practice (e.g. Ball 1990, Lingard et al. 2003).