Immigration and the politics of rights: the French case in comparative perspective: James F. Hollifield
Introduction: immigration and immigrant policy The last decades of the twentieth century saw a marked convergence in strategies for immigration control and immigrant incorporation in the major receiving states of Europe and North America. The new strategies can best be summarised as a 'grand bargain' between anti-and proimmigration forces in liberal democracies. In most immigrant-receiving democracies in western Europe, legal immigration has been restricted in exchange for stepped up efforts to incorporate foreigners already settled in the host societies. In the United States, however, the grand bargain entails stopping illegal immigration (closing the back door) in order to maintain a fairly high level of legal immigration (keeping the front door open). In the 1990s, welfare for immigrants and foreigners in the USA has been restricted, in keeping with the American strategy of trying to eliminate as many pull factors as possible.