The Rational Choice Implications of Control Balance Theory: Alex R. Piquero and Matthew Hickman
A second but more recent general theory has been developed by Tittle (1995) in his award-winning book, Control Balance. The general theme of control balance is that the amount of control to which people are subject, relative to the amount of control they can exercise (the control balance ratio), will affect both the probability and type of deviant behavior they undertake. Individuals with a balanced control ratio are likely to conform. Unlike previous control theories, Tittle's control balance argues that both low control (control deficits) and high control (control surpluses) may be conducive to criminal and deviant acts. Thus, by focusing on control imbalances, Tittle presents a theory designed to account for all criminal and deviant acts.