chapter  5
12 Pages


The agents in this class are halogenated oximes. This class of agents is not specifically covered by the Chemical Weapons Convention. Because of the toxicity of the agents and lack of commercial application outside of limited scientific research, urticants would be prohibited based on the Guidelines for Schedules of Chemicals. These materials are second generation chemical warfare agents developed shortly after

World War I. They are moderately difficult to synthesize and disperse. Chloroformoxime, the first urticant, was first synthesized in 1894. The more effective

dihaloformoximes-phosgene oxime (C05-A001), dibromoformoxime (C05-A002), and diiodoformoxime (C05-A003)—were prepared in the late 1920s and early 1930s. Phosgene oximewas stockpiled byNazi Germany duringWorldWar II but was never used. Since the end of World War II, urticants have been evaluated by numerous countries but stockpiled by few because of production, weaponization, and storage issues. The former Soviet Union overcame these issues and stockpiled phosgene oxime. Urticants have never been used on the battlefield.