Carbon Monoxide Blood Agents
These materials include carbon monoxide and metal carbonyls that readily decompose to produce carbon monoxide (C09-A001). They are ﬁrst generation warfare agents that were evaluated during World War I but largely abandoned because of the difﬁculty delivering an effective concentration of the agent. Between World War I and II, metal carbonyls were added to the fuelsofﬂameweapons (i.e., ﬂamethrowers) asameansofproducinghigh levels of toxic carbon monoxide to augment their incendiary capabilities in situations involving soldiers occupying conﬁned spaces such as caves and bunkers. Although this class of agents is considered obsolete on the modern battleﬁeld, they are
still considered a signiﬁcant threat as potential improvised weapons that could be utilized in urban warfare. They are commercially available but are relatively difﬁcult to disperse over a large area.