Carbamate Nerve Agents
This class of agents is not covered by the Chemical Weapons Convention. Because of the toxicity of the agents and lack of commercial application, carbamate nerve agents would be prohibited based on the Guidelines for Schedules of Chemicals. Thesematerials are fourth generation chemical warfare agents. They contain one ormore
quaternary amine centers that increase the ability of the agent to penetrate into neuromuscular junctions. They are relatively simple to synthesize although the starting materials are not commonly available. Because they produce negligible vapor, they are somewhat difﬁcult to deliver in a manner that will produce immediate casualties. Although the United States began investigating carbamates as warfare agents in the late
1950s, there is no information to indicate that these agents have ever been used other than for research purposes.