chapter  34
9 Pages

Issues Involved in Long-Term Follow-Up of People after Radiation Exposure

General Considerations ..................................................................................................................461 Epidemiological Methods .....................................................................................................461 Biological Dosimetry ............................................................................................................462 Time and Human Factors......................................................................................................462

Tests for Cancers............................................................................................................................464 Hematology ...........................................................................................................................464 Tumor Markers......................................................................................................................464 Ultrasound Examination .......................................................................................................464 Molecular Biology ................................................................................................................464

Tests for Noncancer Diseases ........................................................................................................464 Psychological Problems ........................................................................................................464 Ophthalmological Diseases...................................................................................................465 Cardiovascular Disease .........................................................................................................465 Parathyroid Diseases .............................................................................................................465 Infectious Diseases................................................................................................................465 Immunological Abnormality .................................................................................................466 Subclinical Inflammation ......................................................................................................466

Follow-Up over a Generation ........................................................................................................466 Storage of Biological Materials............................................................................................466 Examination of Second Generation......................................................................................466

References ......................................................................................................................................466 Appendix ........................................................................................................................................468

It is well known that people exposed to radiation may suffer from acute and/or late effects of radiation exposure, depending on dose received. The studies on A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki have shown that late effects are still observed, more than 50 years after the atomic bombings. Therefore, to elucidate the as yet unknown late effects of radiation exposure, follow-up of the exposed will be necessary for many years. Because most of the radiation induced health disorders are not radiation pathognomonic, they cannot be differentiated from health disorders due