— Covert Operations
Introduction is chapter addresses the topics of covert, clandestine, and deception operations as well as plausible deniability using the initiatives of the United States as a foundation for the discussion. e United States has been involved in such actions since the American Revolution. Events leading to World War II required the United States to increase its intelligence operations, and during the War, the nation built a robust intelligence capability. Aer the end of World War II, there was much debate over the future role of intelligence agencies in the United States. President Harry Truman disbanded the Oce of Strategic Services (OSS), which le a void in the nation’s ability to conduct international covert and clandestine operations.