This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book describes the telecommunications system and telecommunications policy in the former USSR against the background of world experience and aims to evaluate progress toward a more effective structure in the era of reform. It provides an overview of the sector, describing its organization, size, network structure, some aspects of its technology, offers the quality of service. The book also aims to develop a framework for interpreting how the organization of the telecommunications sector in the Soviet-type economy affects its performance. It deals with several specialized services and applications of telecoms capabilities. The book addresses the prospects for expansion and modernization of the sector. It also deals with the shift toward a new administrative framework. The book discusses the market for telecoms services and the problem of financing the growth required to make up the old deficiencies and match the new needs.