Use of Nontariff Measures in Agricultural Trade
Nontariff barriers are likely to receive additional attention in the future, for reasons that are implicit in the structure of agricultural policies being followed by most industrial nations, particularly Japan, the European Community and the United States. The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development has organized specific efforts to protect and promote a number of agricultural and raw material products. Nontariff trade restrictions, usually involve some legitimate exercise of a state’s authority to regulate its domestic commerce for the health, safety and well-being of its citizens. The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade has drawn up an inventory of nontariff measures consisting of over 800 separate items, based on notifications submitted by governments and prepared after consultation with traders. The growth in the application of nontariff measures to agriculture means that the industry will be slow to adjust to changing conditions of production and trade. The chapter also presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in this book.