Use of Nontariff Measures in Developed Countries
This chapter considers in more detail nontariff measures that are used by a number of developed countries. From the very large number of nontariff or technical measures available, some countries tend to rely heavily on one particular non-tariff measure—for example, the variable import levy in the European Community. During the transition period, the principal nontariff measures of the British market consisted of a minimum import price system, quota restrictions and prohibitions together with certain health, sanitary and quality controls. The wide range of nontariff measures make markets for agricultural commodities in the Community some of the most highly protected in the world. The members of the Community apply their own health and sanitary regulations on most agricultural products. At the beginning of the 1990s, some agricultural trade between the United States and the European Community is at risk because of disputes over health and sanitary issues in the meat trade.