Biological Weapons Inspections
This chapter describes the Iraqi biological weapons (BW) effort and some of the difficulties associated with identifying clandestine BW programs. It outlines two United Nations Special Commission BW missions and the biological portion of a CBW mission. The chapter focuses on Iraqi camouflage, concealment, and deception activities with regard to the BW program. Iraq also signed the 1972 Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacterio-logical and Toxin Weapons and on Their Destruction, but did not ratify it until April 18, 1991. Despite Iraq’s signing the Geneva Protocol and Biological Weapons Convention, there were suspicions discussed in unclassified Western literature that it was producing biological weapons as early as January 1988. US intelligence had traced exports of equipment from unnamed European countries to Iraq that could be used for BW research. Baghdad insisted in an April 19, 1991, report to the United Nations that it did not possess any biological weapons.