Global surgery is an area of study, research, practice, and advocacy that seeks to improve health outcomes and achieve health equity for all people who require surgical care, with a special emphasis on underserved populations and populations in crisis. Surgery, because it is neither a disease entity nor does it target a specific demographic, has not been a priority for global health initiatives. The recognition of the enormous proportion of health problems requiring surgical intervention has begun to change that perception. The Lancet Commission on Global Surgery convened in 2014 to outline the human and economic impact of surgical conditions in low- and middle-income countries. Trained in emergency surgery, critical care, trauma, and often systems development, administration, quality, and research, acute care surgeons have opportunities to contribute meaningfully, and these opportunities are becoming both more prevalent and more valid.