Police reform can only succeed if the ruling elites in these two countries desire it, have the will power to role model the right behaviour and be willing to sustain changes. They need to create an environment that is conducive to allowing their police to embrace the appropriate virtues and practices and to become more professionalised. The police leaders themselves need to step up to the challenge and articulate and live the principles of fairness, justice and equality in all that they do. Moreover, the need to thread these values into the organisations’ every process, operating procedures and ways of working as well as introduce the enabling technologies and training programmes to instil these values into the muscle memory of their personnel is key. However, none of this would work if the necessary hygiene and motivational factors (especially in the case of India) were not in place to encourage and sustain the required changes. Moreover, external independent oversight and monitoring is a structural success factor needed in order to keep the police and the politicians honest. This book suggests that China would stand a better chance of succeeding than India in transforming their police to a less corrupt service.