chapter  5
23 Pages

Vector vortex beams

ByV. V. Kotlyar, A. A. Kovalev

In optics there are laser beams described by scalar complex amplitudes, which are exact solutions of the nonparaxial Helmholtz equation. These are well-known plane and spherical waves [59], as well as the recently obtained Bessel modes [1, 125], Mathieu beams [4, 116], parabolic laser beams [229], Hankel–Bessel beams [146], and asymmetric Bessel modes [88,124].