Hiatal hernia and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
Hiatus hernia and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) represent the most common entity detected during routine endoscopy. On endoscopy, hiatus hernia is diagnosed on the basis of the distance between the Z line and the diaphragmatic indentation. Several endoscopic grading classifications of GERD, to objectify the severity, have been proposed. Barrett's esophagus is a known complication of long-standing GERD and requires systematic surveillance.