Competing explanations for linguistic features in the outer circle
English has been used as a major medium of communication by the majority of the population only since the 1970s, with changes in the language profile occurring rapidly and accompanied by extreme language ideologies. Language change and the accompanying attitudes are happening fast in Singapore. The English language has had a presence in India for roughly the same amount of time as in North America, and nearly a century longer than in Australia and New Zealand. The means of English arriving in India was different, though: whereas in North America, Australia, and New Zealand scores of settlers took the English language with them, in India a much smaller proportion of settlers were sent for purposes of establishing and maintaining trade. The English speakers who participated in the study conducted by Domange, along with their families, were part of the transformation of the city.