Intellectuals and the State
The political functions just enumerated are not exercised by capitalists that are to say by industrialist employers, bankers, large-scale traders and landed proprietors, but by intellectuals. Owing to the nature of their work and of the knowledge necessary for that work, the specialists belong to intellectual professions. Thus the machinery of State is in the hands of intellectuals. The essential function of one who exercises directive ability is to decide for himself what he has to do; to animate, to prescribe, to organise, to command; in a word, to manifest intellectual volition and personal creative initiative. Disastrous indeed is the doctrine of those who teach that the only possible link between the working-class movement and the socialism of intellectuals is to be found in the acquisitive interest common to “workers by hand and brain”. The acquisitive interests of the various strata of intellectuals are too vague and too divergent to mark intellectuals off as any sort of coherent class.