Exploitation, Oppression, and Joyless Labour
The seigneur undertook the duties of administration, protection, foresight, aid, and jurisdiction; the master, besides doing skilled labour with his own hands, had to direct the enterprise, to train his journeymen and his apprentices, to provide them with food and and to tide them over the slack times. In the early days of the labour movement, the demands of the under-dogs were apt to be based on a conviction that the employer or entrepreneur ought to discharge the traditional obligation of providing for the workers in the enterprise during times of crisis as well as when trade was good. The Marxist theory of the tendency to eliminate skilled labour derives from a primitive epoch of industrialisation. Taylorism aims at applying to the human element in production the principles of division of labour and hierarchy which have already been realised in the case of machines.