International environmental compensation regimes
This chapter zooms in on the practice of international regimes beyond the practice of international courts and tribunals to identify and assess other approaches for the valuation of environmental compensation. It similarly seeks to show how these regimes conceive of environmental damage, and traces the broadening notion of such damage in certain regimes. Indeed, in this chapter we will examine the approaches of the United Nations Compensation Commission (UNCC), the International Oil Pollution Compensation (IOPC) regime, the frameworks governing liability for nuclear incidents, damage resulting from activities in space, Antarctica and deep seabed mining, as well as the Warsaw Mechanism for International Loss and Damage established to address the impacts of climate change. The chapter will also highlight the emergence of an ecosystems approach in conventions on the protection of the environment as well as other international institutional practice.