Land rights as an institution for urban development
Cities are built on land as an essential factor, and land rights as institutions are closely linked to economic systems and social norms. Land rights can be assigned by the state, transacted through the market, and maintained by the communities according to public, private, and social interests. Competition over land resources occurs between human communities and natural reservations. Economic systems are decentralized if decisions are made mainly at bottom levels, whereas they are centralized if decisions are made at top levels. Economic activities are guided by plans formulated by the state. Community management as a way of rural life continues its usefulness as a transitory means of controls in the newly formed urban settlements. Property rights are a bundle of rights that link an economic system with a political structure and a legal regime, and property rights are primarily rights of ownership. The chapter also presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in this book.