This chapter provides a brain-based explanation of the learning process which explains the effectiveness of methods identified by the evidence. The incoming signal travels along the left-hand cell and triggers neurotransmitters into the gap in the synapse. The small gate opens and allows some small chemicals to flood in which stimulate the signal in the receiving synapse. All brains have a different balance of skills and there is sometimes a trade-off so that students with a ‘learning difficulty’ may also have enhanced skills in another area. Some dyslexic people are better are visualising things and seeing the ‘big picture’. They may become architects, designers, entrepreneurs or engineers. People with autistic tendencies can find social situations challenging, but some can focus on one thing for an extended period. They are not distracted by office gossip, for instance. The ‘Theory of Learning’ no longer relies on individual bits of evidence being perfect; it depends on the overall pattern of the evidence.