Anthropological disasters, for instance armed conflicts are affecting millions of people globally. The world has seen an escalating number of disasters over decades, from natural as well as anthropological origins. Disasters cause people to flee from their homes to seek refuge in a safer place in or outside their country of origin. Displaced people are situated in displacement centres, emergency shelters, public utilities, or are hosted by other surviving households. Emergency sanitation shares similarities of context with urban sanitation in developing countries. In June 2012, a workshop on emergency sanitation was organised by WASTE – a Netherlands based non-governmental organisation concerned about creating opportunities in waste utilisation. Relief agencies as main customers of emergency-sanitation products, confirmed that they would not use or purchase a product without a guarantee that the product is fail-proof. The chapter also presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in this book.