Evaluation of water treatment and wastewater characterisation from eSOS Smart Toilet
84This chapter present the results of the laboratory analysis of the washing water and faecal sludge (FS), urine and grey water of an eSOS (emergency Sanitation Operation System) smart toilet that was used in an emergency settlement in the Philippines. A combination of tap/rain water was used for handwashing and anal cleansing, which was treated before use by a water treatment unit. Faecal sludge, urine and grey water were produced separately. Samples were collected at the study site at Tacloban City and transported on the same day to a laboratory at the closest major city (Cebu City). The efficiency of the toilet’s water treatment unit was evaluated, while the FS, urine and grey water were evaluated to determine the necessary after-toilet management steps to ensure safe sanitation that is prerequisite in an emergency settlement. The results showed that the FS is of medium to high strength fresh FS, and the urine samples fits to fresh urine characteristics. Co-treatment of FS with wastewater in a treatment plant is not recommended, co-digestion with wasted sludge might be feasible. The urine and grey water require hygienization before being discharged to water bodies. The eSOS-Smart-Toilet’s own treatment membrane unit effectively reduced the E.coli concentration, but it’s capability to filter solids was not effective.