Energy supply and demand
This chapter provides operational energy and operational carbon from buildings. It summarizes the energy demands of different building typologies. The chapter investigates efficient methods of delivering energy, such as underfloor heating, use of A-rated appliances and local energy generation from district heating schemes. In most domestic buildings, the bulk of energy is used for hot water and space heating. A building’s operational carbon footprint is obtained by multiplying the estimated energy dem and by the CO2 fuel intensity of the fuel used. To avoid transmission losses, it makes sense to generate energy closer to where people need it. Renewables mostly rely on energy from natural elements which become unpredictable and difficult to harness in urban areas. Community heating provides heat from a central source to one or many building blocks via its own distribution network. Many technologies should only be used in combination with a thermal store, which stores excess heat.