Revolutionary Indianismo and the universalization of an “Other”
In Chapter Two, I interpret the Revolutionary branch of Indianismo. As an anti-colonial approach, Revolutionary Indianismo seeks to construct a discourse to oppose the colonial notions and effects of oligarchic liberalism and structuralist Marxism. To achieve this goal, intellectuals create a different ontological, epistemological, and temporal platform. Within this discourse, liberal and Marxist colonialisms are regarded as the invalidated, de-authorized, and illegitimate enemy, which has to disappear through revolution and, if necessary, war. Despite the important possibility of listening to the struggle and voice of an “other,” Revolutionary Indianismo universalizes a particular experience of oppression, generalizing its own notion of equality, authorizing a single kind of agent, and totalizing a distinct kind of liberation. Since other “others” demand the possibility of encompassing their differences, while also classifying and defining the “colonialisms” that need to be resisted, the problem of difference re-emerges yet again. Moreover, this problem also surges because the study of Revolutionary epistemic tendencies poses another question: how is Revolutionary Indianismo different to colonial discourses that also universalize their own singularities? The following chapters continue to investigate these questions while also following the genealogical struggle for the problem of difference in Bolivia and in International Relations.