The universalization of Evo Morales and plurinationality
In Chapter Four, I examine the project of Evo Morales, president of Bolivia between 2006 and 2019, and Álvaro García Linera, former vice-president of the Republic. By constructing epistemic notions that seek to validate multiple identities, Evo Morales and García Linera created another anti-colonial project, which denounces “occidental” domination, but also respects aspects of “occidental” identities. Despite the expansion of equality for ethnic identities and the important inclusion of other forms of equality such as environmentalism, the plurinational notions of citizenship, structures of the government, and characterization of representatives tend to simplify the diversity of ways of being that are practiced in the country. In this manner, plurinationality still silences voices of other indigenous peoples, feminist movements, ecological organizations, etc. Additionally, the ontological notion of “reality” that is used within the discourse elevates a particular idea of equality, which hierarchicalizes other notions of struggle and justice. Unlike other forms of Indianismo, this discourse has been successfully institutionalized in the government of the country, which emphasizes the importance and complexity of the question that I pose in previous chapters: how are anti-colonial discourses different to colonial projects?