This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book examines how gender relations were regulated in ancient Near Eastern and biblical law. It addresses how was gender dynamics regulated in the Mesopotamian legal tradition, as attested in official legal sources. The book is restricted to the question of how formal law addressed gender-related matters, how it allegedly affected and regulated them, without examining whether and how it actually did. It aims to enhance our understanding of the use of legal institutions for the enforcement of social and cultural norms of gender roles, gender relations and sexual behavior in various social settings in the ancient Near East and in ancient Israel during the biblical era. The book highlights the sphere of legislation is used as a prism to look through at gender dynamics in the ancient Near East and the Hebrew Bible.