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Lecture V

Analogy is a species of resemblance. The word resemblance is taken in the large sense in which all subjects which have any property in common, are said to resemble. When two things resemble in the narrower sense, that is, when they both possess all the properties which belong universally to the class, the common name is applied to both of them strictly and properly. A metaphor is the transference of a term from its primitive signification to subjects to which it is applied not in that, but in a secondary sense. An analogy, real or supposed, is always the ground of the transference; hence every metaphor is an analogical application of a term, and every analogical application of a term is ametaphor. The positive moral rules which are laws improperly so called, are laws set or imposed by general opinion: that is to say, by the general opinion of any class or any society of persons.