chapter  4
Changing interaction streams
Modalities of integration and disembedding
WithMattia Zulianello
Pages 73

This chapter analyses the differing patterns of integration (and eventual disembedding) of political parties. With the goal of explaining why anti-system parties experience different evolutions in terms of their interaction streams at the systemic level, five case studies are carried out: the German Greens (positive integration); the Greek Syriza (negative integration through the direct path); the Danish People’s Party and the Five Star Movement in Italy (negative integration through the indirect path); and the Dutch Party for Freedom (radical disembedding). The analysis indicates that a centrally important role is played by the interaction between internal and external factors, especially the agentic response, and that different ‘recipes’ for change can be identified. Indeed, the relative importance of internal factors, such as the change in the conformation of the dominant coalition, strategic calculation by leadership, leadership change, programmatic adaptation, as well as that of external factors, in particular the attitudes and behaviour of mainstream parties, shock to party’s primary goal, and other stimuli, varies across the different cases.