Interference lithography is a powerful technique for fabricating periodic structures. This chapter describes the basic concepts of interference lithography together with how 1D, 2D and 3D periodic structures that can be created using this technique. The light source for interference lithography should be coherent over both the spatial extent of the sample and the duration of time for which the intensity pattern is recorded into the chosen material. Amplitude-splitting configurations divide a single source beam into two or more beams using beam splitters, which are eventually combined through the use of mirrors, lenses, and other optical elements to produce an interference pattern. The periodic structure usually consists of two media with different dielectric constants; one medium has a higher dielectric constant than the other. The periodic dielectric structure affects the propagation of electromagnetic waves in the same way that the periodic potential in a semiconductor affects the motion of electrons by defining allowed and forbidden energy bands.