This chapter examines the origins of China's most radical experiment to restructure the Chinese economy and society—the Great Leap Forward. The Shanghai Party committee, under the leadership of Ke Qingshi, seemed consistent in its support for 'blooming and contending' and, thus, Shanghai was an excellent place to take stock of the situation. Ke Qingshi insisted most strongly on the principle of dual rule and this led to friction between Shanghai and the all china Federation of Trade Unioncentre. The press also came under attack, a particular target being Shanghai's Wenhuibao which had apparently taken too seriously the injunction to 'open wide the publication of criticism'. The Great Leap Forward, then, was envisaged as part of this process of 'uninterrupted revolution' and there was nothing that was not to be pressed into its service. The Great Leap Forward strategy was not aimed just at increasing productivity, with some human considerations taken into account.