This book discusses conventional as well as unconventional wood drying technologies. It covers fundamental thermophysical and energetic aspects and integrates two complex thermodynamic systems, conventional kilns and heat pumps, aimed at improving the energy performance of dryers and the final quality of dried lumber. It discusses advanced components, kiln energy requirements, modeling, and software and emphasizes dryer/heat pump optimum coupling, control, and energy efficiency. Problems are included in most chapters as practical, numerical examples for process and system/components calculation and design. The book presents promising advancements and R&D challenges and future requirements.