This chapter outlines some of the major factors involved in project success and failure. Projects have both internal and external variables at play that can overwhelm even the best of management processes. Many of the external issues are very hard to control and even one of these may be sufficient to cause failure—one example of this is frequent changes in requirements coming from organization goal changes. Support from senior management is the long-term winner for the number one item on the Standish list and is a similar ranking on many other surveys. In model theory, senior management formally approves a project Charter, which formalizes the project and implicitly says that management will support the effort. If senior management is not involved at a reasonable level they cannot properly help or make the difficult decisions. An environment with low emotional maturity will struggle with conflicts and group decision-making.