Project Management Institute describes the project life cycle as "the series of phases that a project passes through from its start to its completion. Within a project life cycle, there are generally one or more phases that are associated with the development of the product, service, or result. This chapter describes common agile practices: backlog preparation; backlog refinement; iteration planning; daily standups; demonstrations/reviews; task boards; and retrospectives. During the 1980s, companies began introducing total quality management (TQM) as part of a corporate culture transformation to improve performance. TQM introduced team management into organizations that were designed with hierarchical, command-and-control structures and cultures. The team develops and maintains a high-level summary of the project's key success factors, synthetic enough that it can be displayed on one wall of the team room as a flipchart-sized sheet of paper. This description includes at least the major objectives of the project, scope boundaries, and reciprocal agreements between the project's implementation team and external stakeholders.