The factor of personal relationship between analyst and patient was quickly recognized by Freud and incorporated into the body of psychoanalytical teaching under this term of 'transference'. Therapeutic optimism and pessimism have alternated in the history of the psychoanalytic movement, which simply shows that analysts have never been blind to the difficulties. Psychodynamic studies are the very spearhead of intellectual progress today and will lead to yet another major reorientation of our culture and civilization. Those who foolishly try to deny scientific reality to psychodynamic studies are, by implication, saying that the progress of human thought has come to a final end in their type of scientific theory and philosophy: a proposition which only has to be stated to be seen to be absurd. Psychotherapy must use psychodynamic knowledge, which has its own objectivity and is the only truly 'psychological science', as a tool in the service of human personality and its rights to be given personal relationships of a kind which will permit and 'facilitate'.