Psychoanalysis and evolution
Modern-day perspectives make it clear that psychoanalysis can no longer be considered as anything but a biological science. As members of the species Homo sapiens sapiens, humans are biological creatures, and every aspect of how function and adapt belongs to the biological realm. Viewing psychoanalysis as a biological science implies that biology and its many subsciences must of necessity be intimately connected with, and have the potential to deeply inform and bring fresh thinking to, the theory and practice of both psychoanalysis and psychotherapy. The pursuit of evolutionary scenarios for the human brain is a daunting effort—brains do not fossilize and skull markings and other ingeniously discovered indirect clues are all that is available for such efforts. Comprehending the evolution of cognitive functions—non-emotional ways of knowing and adapting to the world, including the use of language—has a host of problems of its own.