The traditions and practice of psychotherapy
Psychotherapy means healing of the soul. Until the eighteenth century, the power to heal the soul was the prerogative of the "holy man". When someone was in spiritual distress, he approached a saint within Christendom, a Sufi within Islam, or an Arahat within Buddhism. In his book Man's Search For Meaning, Viktor Frankl outlines his theory of logotherapy, which he derived from his experiences in two concentration camps. He tells of a woman whom he had in a logodrama. She was in despair. Winnicott believed that the early relationship between infant and mother determines the general character or style of the child's and the future adult's mental health: the child is not a separate individual entity from its mother, rather the child is merged with the maternal environment. For Melanie Klein the infant is a separate individual from birth, with its own rudimentary ego.